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Core Projects

The following publications relate directly to the Foci and Tasks outlined the Science Plans for each of DIVERSITAS’ Core Projects:


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Science Plan

The Science Plan for DIVERSITAS Core Project 1 is currently under development.


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Effects of biodiversity on the functioning of trophic groups and ecosystems (Bradley J.Cardinale, Diane S. Srivastava, J. Emmett Duffy, Justin P. Wright, Amy L. Downing, Mahesh Sankaran and Claire Jouseau)


Assessing the impacts of biodiversity changes on ecosystem functioning and services

ecoSERVICES science plan and implementation strategy

This Science Plan highlights how DIVERSITAS intends to investigate—using an integrated approach—the ways in which changes in biodiversity affect the functioning of ecosystems and, thus, the delivery of ecosystem goods and services that support human well-being. The Plan comprises three inter-related Foci:

Focus 1: Linking biodiversity to ecosystem functioning
Focus 2: Linking ecosystem functioning to provision of services
Focus 3: Human responses to changes in ecosystem services

The interdisciplinary approach of the ecoSERVICES Science Plan recognizes the need consider the interplay of two complex and changing systems—ecological and economic—on local, regional and global scales. The Research Objectives and Tasks outlined will help reveal important information about the social, economic and cultural value various stakeholders accord to ecosystem goods and services.

To order hard copies of this document, please contact DIVERSITAS secretariat.


Vegetation change:a reunifying concept in plant ecology (MarkA.Davis, Jan Pergl, Anne-Marie Truscott, Johannes Kollmann, Jan P.Bakker, Roser Domenech, Karel Prach, Anne-Hélène Prieur-Richard, Roos M.Veeneklaas, Petr Pyssek, Roger del Moral, Richard J.Hobbs, Scott L.Collins, Steward T.A.Pickett, Peter B.Reich

Effects of species diversity on the primary productivity of ecosystems: extending our spatial and temporal scales of inference (Bradley J. Cardinale, Anthony R. Ives and Pablo Inchausti)

Biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning: insights from aquatic systems (Mark O. Gessner, Pablo Inchausti, Lennart Persson, David G. Raffaelli and Paul S. Giller)

Biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning: emerging issues and their experimental test in aquatic environments (Paul S. Giller, Helmut Hillebrand, Ulrike-G. Berninger, Mark O. Gessner, Stephen Hawkins, Pablo Inchausti, Cheryl Inglis, Heather Leslie, Bjo¨ rn Malmqvist, Michael T. Monaghan, Peter J. Morin and Gregory O’Mullan)

Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in aquatic microbial systems: a new analysis of temporal variation and species richness-predictability relations (Peter J. Morin and Jill McGrady-Steed)

Species loss and the structure and functioning of multitrophic aquatic systems (Owen L. Petchey, Amy L. Downing, Gary G. Mittelbach, Lennart Persson, Christopher F. Steiner, Philip H. Warren and Guy Woodward)

Linking ecological function, biodiversity and habitat: a mini-review focusing on older ecological literature (Bernhard Statzner and Brian Moss)

Impacts of multiple stressors on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: the role of species co-tolerance (Rolf D. Vinebrooke, Kathryn L. Cottingham, Jon Norberg, Marten Scheffer, Stanley I. Dodson, Stephen C. Maberly and Ulrich Sommer)



Effects of Biodiversity on Ecosystem Functioning: A Consensus of Current Knowledge IN ESA report: Ecological Monographs, 75 (1), 2005, pp. 3-35

D.U. Hooper, Western Washington University, USA
F.S. Chapin, University of Alaska, USA
J.J. Ewel, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, USDA, USA
A. Hector, University of Zurich, Switzerland
P. Inchausti, CEBC-CNRS, France
S. Lavorel, Université J. Fourier, CNRS, France
J.H. Lawton, Natural Environment Research Council, United Kingdom
D.M. Lodge, University of Notre Dame, USA
M. Loreau, Ecole Normale Supérieure, France
S. Naeem, Columbia University, USA
B. Schmid, University of Zurich, Switzerland
H. Setälä, University of Helsinki, Finland
A.J. Symstad, U.S. Geological Survey, USA
J. Vandermeer, University of Michigan, USA
D.A. Wardle, Landcare Research, New Zealand and Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden

Humans are altering the composition of biological communities through a variety of activities that increase rates of species invasions and species extinctions, at all scales, from local to global. These changes in components of the Earth’s biodiversity cause concern for ethical and aesthetic reasons; but they also have a strong potential to alter ecosystem properties and the goods and services they provide to humanity: Ecological experiments, observations, and theoretical developments show that ecosystem properties depend greatly on biodiversity in terms of the functional characteristics of organisms present in the ecosystem and the distribution and abundance of those organisms over space and time. Species effects act in concert with the effects of climate, resource availability, and disturbance regimes in influencing ecosystem properties: Human activities can modify all of the above factures, here we focus on modification of these biotic controls.
The scientific community has come to a broad consensus on many aspects of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, including many points relevant to management of ecosystems. Further progress will require integration of knowledge about biotic and abiotic controls on ecosystem properties, how ecological communities are structured, and the forces driving species extinction and invasions. To strengthen links to policy and management, we also need to integrate our ecological knowledge with understanding of the social and economic constraints of potential management practices. Understanding this complexity, while taking strong steps to minimize current losses of species, is necessary for responsible management of Earth’s ecosystems and the diverse biota they contain.



Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning: Synthesis and Perspectives

by Michel Loreau, Shahid Naeem and Pablo Inchausti, eds (2002). Oxford University Press. (To view segments or order, please visit:

Determining the scientific relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is one of the most important challenges for ecological and environmental science. By providing a synthesis and critical assessment, this book helps to identify the main issues and to encourage new directions for future investigation.


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Science Plan

Developing the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity

bioSUSTAINABILITY science plan and implementation strategy

CP3_science plan_cover_small.jpgThis Science Plan highlights the need to understand the
underlying motivations and incentives of individuals, businesses and
governments whose actions currently threaten biodiversity. The Plan
comprises three interrelated Foci.

Focus 1: Evaluating the effectiveness of current measures for the
conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity
Focus 2: Social, political and economic drivers of biodiversity loss
Focus 3: Social choice and decision making about the conservation and
sustainable use of biodiversity

As outlined in the Implementation Strategy, this Core Project is undertaking
specific actions to generate knowledge and develop tools to help policy
makers and resource managers make informed decisions and adopt best practice
to slow biodiversity loss on local, regional and international scales.

To order hard copies of this document, please contact DIVERSITAS secretariat .



Last updated: 17 January 2007

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