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On-going projects

DIVERSITAS has a portfolio of on-going endorsed projects, which implement its scientific strategy:

  • FADA: Freshwater Animal Diversity Assessment


Advancing implementation of an ecosystem approach to fisheries

The socio-economic sustainability of marine capture fisheries is unequivocally linked to the ecological sustainability of marine ecosystems. Hence, the management of marine capture fisheries via an ecosystem approach has been prescribed in major international fisheries agreements for over three decades. The aim of an ecosystem approach to fisheries management is to sustain both ecosystem integrity, from genetic diversity to broad ecosystem-level structure and function, and the capacity of marine ecosystems to provide services, including fisheries yields, while balancing often conflicting objectives by striving to achieve the equitable distribution of ecosystem benefits. Two studies will support domestic and regional fishery management systems to meet ecological, human and institutional objectives in transitioning to an ecosystem approach to fisheries.

The first study component – "International Guidelines on Best Practice Methods for Pelagic Fishery Ecological Risk Assessment" –, starting in August 2013, focuses on methods for ecological risk assessment of the effects of fisheries. It will develop international guidelines on best practices for ecological risk assessments of the effects of open-ocean (pelagic) fisheries. It is funded primarily by the Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council. More on the project's website.

The second study component – "A New Pressure Indicator of the Broad Ecosystem-level Effects of Marine Capture Fisheries: Estimating Biomass Inter-Community Transfer by Pelagic and Demersal Fisheries" – addresses the development of a new pressure indicator of fisheries biomass transfer between ecosystems. It is planned to start in late 2014, and will develop a new indicator of the effect of commercial fisheries on pelagic and seafloor (benthic) communities. More on the project's website.

Contact: Eric Gilman, Hawaii Pacific University, USA


Amazonian Biodiversity: Assembly and evolution of the Amazonian biota and its environment through an integrated approach

The Amazonian Biodiversity project is a collaborative endeavour that proposes a new evolutionary and environmental synthesis of Amazonian biodiversity.

The project is one the activities of the DIVERSITAS bioGENESIS core project.

Contacts: Joel Cracraft, American Museum of Natural History, USA, and Lúcia Lohmann, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil

More on Amazonian Biodiversity.


AquaBase: Science-based management and restoration of freshwater ecosystem services

AquaBase is a collaborative project that focuses on developing quantitative relationships that link management options to underlying biophysical processes and ecosystem service provisioning.

AquaBase is one of the activities of the freshwaterBIODIVERSITY cross-cutting network of DIVERSITAS.

Contact: Margaret Palmer, University of Maryland, USA

More on AquaBase.


BioFresh: Biodiversity of Freshwater ecosystems: status, trends, pressures, and conservation priorities

BioFresh aims at combining globally scattered data on freshwater biodiversity and making a centralised dataset easily accessible to scientists, policy makers and planners internationally.

BioFresh is one of the activities of the freshwaterBIODIVERSITY cross-cutting network of DIVERSITAS.

Contact: Klement Tockner, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Germany

More on BioFresh.

BioFresh publications.


BIOTA/FAPESP: The Virtual Institute of Biodiversity

Since 1999, BIOTA/FAPESP's programme: the Biodiversity Virtual Institute, aims to inventory and characterise the terrestrial, freshwater and marine biodiversity of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and define the mechanisms for its conservation, restoration and sustainable use. The programme is supported by São Paulo Research Foundation, FAPESP, and achieves its goals by:

  • Training new taxonomists and restore taxonomy as a major science area,
  • Supporting research projects on inventories and taxonomic revisions,
  • Establishing a standard protocol for recording biological information,
  • Developing the tools to integrate biological data, with a sophisticated GIS,
  • Identify and characterise new molecules or processes of potential economic value, and transfer this knowledge to the production sector while keeping royalties to promote biodiversity research and protection,
  • Improving the legal biodiversity framework by incorporating biodiversity data and landscape metrics, and
  • Raising awareness for the general public including schools.

Research ranges from DNA bar-coding to landscape ecology and includes taxonomy, phylogeny, phylogeography, and the human dimension of conservation.

In 2006-2008, BIOTA/FAPESP, in collaboration with the State Secretary of the Environment and NGOs such as CI, TNC, and WWF, synthesised data from landscape structural parameters, >151000 records of 9405 species, and biological indices from >92000 fragments of native vegetation for public-policy-making. Two maps of conservation priority areas were produced and have been adopted by São Paulo as the legal framework to improve public policies on biodiversity, while 6 governmental decrees and 13 resolutions quote the maps' guidelines.

In its 13 years of existence, BIOTA/FAPESP has supported 206 research projects, trained >350 young scientists and published >850 research articles and 18 books. The programme launched an open-access electronic peer-reviewed journal, Biota Neotropica, in 2001 and started BIOprospecTA, a network of bioprospection and bioassays labs to search for new molecules and/or processes of economic interest, in 2002. In 2009, BIOTA/FAPESP was renewed until 2020.

BIOTA/FAPESP is especially relevant to the activities of the DIVERSITAS bioGENESIS and bioDISCOVERY core projects.

Contact: Carlos A. Joly, University of Sao Paolo, Brazil


DiverSus: Links between functional diversity, ecosystems and social dynamics

DiverSus, is an International Nucleus since 2005, with headquarters at the Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology (IMBIV; CONICET and National University of Cordoba) in Argentina. It is funded through the Collaborative Research Network Programme of Inter-American institute for Global Change research (IAI) that promotes research cooperation and exchange of information in an integrated way through interdisciplinary studies and international networks involving at least 4 countries in each project. The participating countries are Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica and the USA.

In 2006-2011 (DiverSus–CRN II 2015), DiverSus successfully built a network of scientists to work on the links between biodiversity, ecosystem processes and ecosystem services in the Americas. During this initial project phase, DiverSus produced numerous joint articles, databases, postgraduate theses and tools, and had impacts in the scientific community with effects that went far beyond the mere juxtaposition of independent projects. Its achievements and networking also pointed to new opportunities for synthesis and integration. In particular, new questions that were not obvious at the onset of the project were identified and lay the foundation for the second project phase (DiverSus–SGP-CRA 2015). From 2012 to 2014, DiverSus will wrap up concepts, methods and baseline information on the links between functional diversity, ecosystems and social dynamics. This will be achieved mainly by:

  • publishing network-wide products on functional diversity and ecosystem processes;
  • developing a synthesis and more detailed description of DiverSus' interdisciplinary method for linking biodiversity, ecosystem services, and the benefits perceived by different social actors;
  • identifying and analysing the links between functional diversity and major ecosystem properties across sites using a modelling approach;
  • understanding the links between land use change, ecosystem services and social conflicts at the territorial scale;
  • identifying new key questions and prospective partners; and
  • disseminating results, and major products and findings.

DiverSus is especially relevant to the activities of the DIVERSITAS ecoSERVICES core project.

Contact: Sandra Diaz, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Argentina

DiverSus publications.


Dynamic Drivers of Disease in Africa Consortium

The Dynamic Drivers of Disease in Africa Consortium (DDDAC) is a research programme funded by the Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA). ESPA is a seven-year, £40.5m interdisciplinary research programme funded by the UK's Department for International Development (DFID), Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC), as part of the UK's Living with Environmental Change partnership. Its goal is to ensure that, in developing countries, ecosystems are being sustainably managed in a way that contributes to poverty reduction as well as inclusive and sustainable growth.

The DDDAC is designed to deliver much-needed, cutting-edge science on the relationships between ecosystems, zoonoses, health and well-being with the objective of moving people out of poverty and promoting social justice. The three-and-a-half-year, £3.2m Consortium will focus on four emerging or re-emerging zoonotic diseases in four diverse African ecosystems – henipavirus infection in Ghana, Rift Valley fever in Kenya, Lassa fever in Sierra Leone, and trypanosomiasis in Zambia and Zimbabwe. Its innovative, holistic approach will marry the natural and social sciences as it builds an evidence base designed to inform global and national policy players seeking effective, integrated approaches to control and check disease outbreaks.

The DDDAC programme comprises 19 partners spanning Africa, Europe and the USA, and includes researchers in the environmental, biological, social, political, and human and animal health sciences. They will generate new knowledge on how ecosystems change, on how ecology and people's interactions with ecosystems affect disease emergence, and on disease transmission and exposure. They will also make significant contributions to understanding, measuring and modelling diseases and disease effect on human well-being.

The Consortium is especially relevant to the activities of the ecoHEALTH cross-cutting network of DIVERSITAS.

Contacts: Naomi Marks or Catherine Holley, Institute of Development Studies (IDS), UK



EcoHealthNet is a Research Coordination Network (RCN) programme, funded by the US National Science Foundation (NSF), for international graduate students interested in infectious disease research. The programme is comprised of an annual workshop and a research exchange programme that expose students to high-level training and research in US-based or international projects.

EcoHealthNet is one of the activities of the ecoHEALTH cross-cutting network of DIVERSITAS.

Contact: Luciana Mendiola, EcoHealth Alliance, USA

More on EcoHealthNet.

EcoHealthNet publications.


Effects of climate change on past, recent, and future biodiversity of alpine/arctic plants: Integrative evidence from phylogenies, population genetics, ecological niche modelling and new insights for conservation

This research aims at improving knowledge on species responses to climate change and on how to apply this new scientific knowledge in environmental decision making.

The project is especially relevant to the activities of the DIVERSITAS bioGENESIS core project.

Contacts: Elena Conti, University of Zürich, Switzerland, and Christophe Randin, University of Basel, Switzerland

More on this project.



ELN-FAB: European Learning Network on Functional AgroBiodiversity

In January 2009, the European Centre for Nature Conservancy (ECNC) collaborated with the DIVERSITAS agroBIODIVERSITY Core Project to create the European Learning Network on Functional AgroBiodiversity (ELN-FAB). The ELN-FAB stemmed from the realisation that knowledge on how biodiversity can be mobilised to make agriculture sustainable is increasing and should be incorporated in policy instruments from national to global level. Throughout Europe, farmers, researchers, policymakers and other stakeholders are implementing various forms of management using agrobiodiversity (i.e. managed and unplanned biodiversity in agricultural ecosystems) for sustainable production objectives. At present, this practical experience is extremely fragmented and barely accessible. The ELN-FAB project aims to change this. It accumulates knowledge on agrobiodiversity to:

  • increase sustainable agricultural production,
  • provide a platform for exchange of knowledge and practical experiences between farmers, policymakers and scientists,
  • enable fast and effective implementation of best practices, and
  • promote sustainable agriculture in the 27 Member States of the EU, plus Norway and Switzerland.

The ELN-FAB website provides the main communication platform for the Network. It contains an extensive European project database on FAB and the network relies on a mailing list of nearly 600 addresses from stakeholders all over Europe. Connection and cooperation with other relevant networks and companies are explored to expand the network further. ELN-FAB's outreach activities have included annual European seminars, regional awareness raising workshops, and the publication of a brochure (pdf) about the concept of FAB. A FAB guidance document has recently been released that describes the FAB policy and practices and that provides practical examples for a number of selected FAB measures (pdf). Disseminating information on FAB via various high-level events and forums is a continuous task.
In 2009-2012, the project was financially supported by the European Commission LIFE+ NGO programme, the Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment of the Netherlands, the Flemish Land Agency (VLM) in Belgium, the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN), the European Environment Agency (EEA), and the Ministry of Agriculture of Estonia. Further support is being sought  to expand the Network beyond 2012.

This project is one of the activities of the agroBIODIVERSITY cross-cutting network of DIVERSITAS.

Contact: Veronika Mikos, European Centre for Nature Conservation (ECNC), The Netherlands

ELN-FAB publications.


FADA: Freshwater Animal Diversity Assessment

FADA aims to coordinate data compilation on freshwater biodiversity in order to address research needs and conservation issues in freshwater biodiversity more efficiently.

FADA is one of the activities of the freshwaterBIODIVERSITY cross-cutting network of DIVERSITAS.

Contacts: Koen Martens, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Belgium, and Hendrik Segers, Belgium Biodiversity Platform

More on FADA.

FADA publications.

Genomic Basis of Adaptation to Climate Change

CSIRO (lead scientists John Oakeshott and Simon Ferrier), University of Melbourne (Ary Hoffmann), Monash University (Carla Sgrò) and Beijing Genomics Institute (BGI; Goujie Zhang and Shiping Liu) are collaborating in a major study on the genomic basis of species’ abilities to adapt to climate change. The work is co-funded by Australia’s Science and Industry Endowment Fund (SIEF) and started in October 2011 for 4 years.

The work has an initial focus on Drosophila, building on previous work by Hoffmann's and Sgrò’s groups showing that while many Drosophila species can adapt genetically to changing climate regimes in the lab, the two species they have studied so far from Australia’s wet tropics cannot (Science (2009) 325: 1244-1246). If this finding proves general across other species it would clearly have profound implications for biodiversity management under climate change, given the high levels of endemic species in the wet tropics.

The collaborators are therefore working to test a wide range of Drosophilids for their genetic and plastic/physiological responses to climate changes in the lab and to sequence the genomes and transcriptomes of 20 of the species showing a range of responses. The goal of the molecular work is to identify genomic signatures for the climate specialists that have little ability to adapt genetically, opening up the possibility of using these approaches more generally to assess evolutionary potential. While the team's first focus is on Drosophila, they have also begun work on other groups of organisms, including plants. Other groups around the world have initiated similar studies on various groups of terrestrial and marine species.

A crucial component of this project is to incorporate empirical findings on evolutionary adaptation ability into models predicting general biodiversity responses to climate change. Currently such models do not consider evolution or plasticity. The key challenge here is to identify from empirical studies general patterns about the ecological and phylogenetic factors linked to adaptive capacity. The models can then be scaled up from individual species to consider likely responses of whole communities and ecosystems.

This project is relevant to the DIVERSITAS bioGENESIS core project.

Contact: John Oakeshott, CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences, Australia


GLP: Global Land Project

The Global Land Project (GLP) is the successor of the jointly sponsored IGBP/IHDP (International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme / International Human Dimensions Programme for global change research) project Land-Use and Land-Cover Change (LUCC) and of the IGBP project on Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems (GCTE). The research goal of the GLP is to measure, model and understand the coupled human-environmental system (“land system”) as part of broader efforts to address changes in Earth processes and subsequent social, economic and political consequences, ranging from local to regional scales. Indeed, changes in coupled human-environmental systems also affect the rates of cycling of energy, water, elements, and biota at the global level, while global-level changes in political economy, such as international treaties and market liberalisation, in turn affect decisions about resources at local and regional levels.
GLP’s Science Plan (2005) represents the research framework for the coming decade for land systems.

DIVERSITAS has been involved in discussions and in drafting parts of the GLP science plan. There are, in particular, common interests between DIVERSITAS and GLP on the topic of biodiversity and global environmental change. GLP is especially relevant to the activities of the DIVERSITAS bioDISCOVERY core project.

Contact: Tobias Langanke, University of Copenhagen, Denmark

GLP publications.


GLORIA: Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments

The purpose of GLORIA is to maintain and to extend an operative world-wide long-term observation network in alpine environments. Vegetation and temperature data collected at the GLORIA sites will be used for discerning trends in species diversity and temperature. The data will be used to assess and predict losses in biodiversity and other threats to these fragile alpine ecosystems which are under accelerating climate change pressures. By 2013, GLORIA sites were setup in 115 mountain regions spread over the six continents.

The project goals' are to:

  • Document changes in biodiversity and vegetation patterns, caused by climate change in the world's high mountain ecosystems;
  • Assess the impacts of climate change-induced biodiversity and habitat losses and associated effects on ecosystem functioning;
  • Contribute to international efforts to mitigate biodiversity and habitat losses.

GLORIA is relevant to the activities of the GMBA cross-cutting network of DIVERSITAS.

Contact: Harald Pauli, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Austria

GLORIA publications.


Governance of Ecosystem Services under Scenarios of Change in Southern and Eastern Africa

The research programme on the "Governance of Ecosystem Services under Scenarios of Change in Southern and Eastern Africa" is a collaboration between the Stockholm Resilience Centre in Sweden, the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in South Africa, and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (VU) in The Netherlands. The programme is funded by the Swedish international development cooperation agency (Sida), and has the following main objectives to:

  • Generate innovative tools to assess and map multiple ecosystem services in data poor situations;
  • Identify trade-offs and synergies among ecosystem services and human well-being, especially in the context of non-linear ecosystem changes; and
  • Gain an understanding of potential pathways for transformation towards improved governance of ecosystem services, including the escape and avoidance of social-ecological poverty traps.

Two complementary PhD projects were initiated in 2011 to address these objectives, focusing on the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa as their study area. This is a region of exceptionally rich biodiversity and cultural heritage. But the province also exhibits high levels of poverty and inequality, and has been experiencing rapid social-ecological changes since the advent of democracy in 1994.

The first PhD project is set at the regional scale, mapping and analysing the patterns of interactions between ecosystem services and human well-being across the Eastern Cape. Of particular interest are non-linear changes in the provision of ecosystem services within the study area, and the effects of such ‘regime shifts’ on human well-being. Drawing on publicly available data, the analyses are performed using GIS and a social-ecological systems approach. The second PhD is set at the village level, and investigates the role of culture in mediating the generation and appreciation of ecosystem services in the context of circular urban labour migration. It is also concerned with the importance of human-nature interactions for both coping with and adapting to change (resilience) and developing into the future (transformation). Participatory photography, focus groups and interviews are the methods employed to explore a ‘sense of place’ in urban and rural contexts, as well as the implications of sense of place for social-ecological dynamics.

The research programme is especially relevant to the DIVERSITAS bioSUSTAINABILITY core project.

Contact: Thomas Elmqvist, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden


MIREN: Mountain Invasion Research Network

MIREN aims to understand the effects of global change on plant invasions and plant biodiversity in mountainous areas. The project uses observational and experimental studies along elevation gradients to evaluate and quantify the processes and mechanisms that are shaping mountain plant communities. MIREN's integrates three research priorities:

  • Understanding the processes and mechanisms of plant invasions and migration in mountains;
  • Detecting and monitoring patterns and impacts of global change in mountain plant communities; and
  • Informing land management in mountain systems and conservation areas about plant invasions and the effects of global change on plant communities in mountains.

MIREN comprises of a group of ca. 30 researchers in 11 regions situated in different climate zones and on all continents, who are interested in basic and applied questions related to global change, plant invasions, and plant biodiversity in mountains. The observational and experimental approaches applied at multiple temporal and spatial scales have permitted MIREN's researchers to gain insights into patterns and mechanisms that may allow for broad generalisations in ecology.

MIREN has published several papers in internationally recognised journals (e.g. Pauchard et al. Front Ecol Environ 7:479-486 (2009), Alexander et al. PNAS 108:656-661 (2011), Seipel et al. Global Ecol Biogeogr 21:236-246 (2012)), several book chapters as a consortium (e.g. Kueffer et al. In: Alien Plant Invasions in Protected Areas: A Global Assessment (2013)), and different combinations of the group have collaborated on over 30 journal articles, since the research started in 2005. The network is also involved in continuous interactions with managers in the different core regions, and has promoted preventive management in mountains globally (e.g. McDougall et al. Mt Res Dev 31:380-387 (2011)).

MIREN intends to be a model example of how international networking can help face the many challenges of global change by using replicated local case studies framed in a global context.

MIREN is relevant to the activities of the GMBA cross-cutting network of DIVERSITAS.

Contact: Christoph Kueffer, ETH Zurich, Switzerland

MIREN publications.


OA-ICC: Ocean Acidification International Coordination Centre

The Ocean Acidification International Coordination Centre (OA-ICC) was officially announced at Rio+20 in June 2012 and mentioned at the High CO2 symposium in Monterey in September 2012 (see news). The project aims to promote, facilitate and communicate a number of activities on ocean acidification which are not currently funded at a national or international level, including an international observation network, capacity building, exchange of students, joint experiments and facilities, data management and dissemination. The project is operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Environment Laboratories in Monaco and has numerous international partners.

OA-ICC is relevant to DIVERSITAS' contribution and support to the IPCC and IPBES.

Contact: Lina Hansson, IAEA Environment Laboratories, Monaco



PREDICT is a project of the EcoHealth Alliance that seeks to identify new emerging infectious diseases that could become a threat to human health. PREDICT focuses on wildlife that are most likely to carry zoonotic diseases and present a high risk to human health.

PREDICT is one the activities of the ecoHEALTH cross-cutting network of DIVERSITAS that helps implementing its DESED activity.

Contact: Jonathan Epstein, EcoHealth Alliance, USA

More on PREDICT.


Pursuit: Monitoring the Direct Links Between Ecosystems and People

Pursuit focuses on advancing ecosystem service monitoring as a means towards better reflecting the vital connections between people and ecosystem services.

Pursuit is especially relevant to the activities of the DIVERSITAS ecoSERVICES core project and GEO BON.

Contact: Heather Tallis, Stanford University, USA

More on Pursuit.


SUSTES: the Sustainable Use of Spatially and Temporally distributed Ecosystem Services

SUSTES is a project of the ecoSERVICES Group at the Arizona State University. The project aims to extend current ecosystem-service assessments that are focused on flows of ecosystem services within national or other boundaries, rather than the flows across those boundaries. The three-year research (Jul 2010-Jun 2013) will enhance understanding of the way that non-marketed ecosystem services are distributed across the landscape, the significance (value) of those services, and the trade-offs between them. SUSTES focuses on two different reference sites: the Salt and Verde River basins, Arizona, USA; and the Panama Canal Watershed, Panama. At each site, research is:

  • identifying and quantifying the ecosystem services delivered across spatial and temporal scales;
  • identifying the value of those services to both local and distant beneficiaries; and
  • identifying the governance mechanisms—the institutions and incentive systems—that have the potential to induce sustainable provisioning of ecosystem services across scales.

The project also applies integrative, cross-cutting research to assure site comparability and results integration.

Outreach includes presentations at international conferences (e.g. ACES and Ecosystem Markets 2012, presentations by Simonit and Perrings and Yoo and Simonit, and abstracts; GLP Open Science Meeting 2010, abstract), preparation of scientific publications and a scientific report prepared for the Planet under Pressure conference in 2012. Preliminary results on the Arizona site were used at a stakeholders meeting (Nov 2012, Tempe, USA) directed to main stakeholders related to water use and production in the Salt and Verde River watersheds.

SUSTES is relevant to the activities of the DIVERSITAS ecoSERVICES core project.

Contact: Silvio Simonit, Arizona State University, USA

SUSTES publications.


Tropical Paleo-Temperature Database

The Tropical Paleo-Temperature Database wants to provide researchers with information about the long-term changes in temperature throughout the Cretaceous geologic period and the Cenozoic Era based on data compiled from geochemical and morphological proxies. Currently the database compiles 6500 points recorded and calibrated into the Gradstein et al. (2004. A Geologic Time Scale. Cambridge University Press) timescale. The project aims to continue uploading new paleotropical data, and encourage the scientific community to also include data from temperate and polar regions to have a global paleo-temperature repository.

The Tropical Paleo-Temperature Database is relevant to the DIVERSITAS bioGENESIS core project.

Contact: Carlos Jaramillo, Smithonian Tropical Research Institute, USA




TROPI-DRY is a collaborative research network sponsored by the Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research (IAI). Its research focuses on ecological research, advances in remote sensing and GIS, and human dimension issues to advance the conservation of tropical dry forests in the Americas. TROPI-DRY brings together researchers in conservation biology, ecology and evolution, remote sensing and GIS, sociology, anthropology, policy analysis, and forestry to develop a comprehensive, "state-of-the-art" understanding of the status of tropical dry forests (primary and secondary) in the Americas. The project produces comprehensive and comparative land-use/policy studies in tropical dry regions based on the natural and social sciences and in collaboration with local and national policy-making organisations. At present, TROPI-DRY incorporates researchers and institutions from Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, and the USA.

TROPY-DRY is especially relevant to the activities of the DIVERSITAS bioDISCOVERY and bioSUSTAINABILITY core projects.

Contact: Arturo Sanchez-Azofeifa, University of Alberta, Canada

TROPI-DRY publications.

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